• Surveying formula sheet

    Surveying formula sheet

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    Get started now Ready to build your first survey? Go to Google Forms. Please enter a valid email address Thanks for signing up.Surveyors can work on a small scale accurately siting the corners of a building on its plot or a very large one charting the path of a proposed highway but their work always involves measurements in the field.

    Tony Phillips Stony Brook University tony at math. Tradition has it that geometry literally, earth-measurement began when the ancient Egyptians had to re-establish boundary lines between fields after the annual floods of the Nile; the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization still recommends using a 3, 4, 5 triangle to set out right angles in survey work, a procedure that may well go back to the pharaohs.

    Today, surveyors continue to make explicit use of plane geometry and trigonometry on a day-to-day basis. Along with their seafaring cousins, the navigators, they may be the most geometrical of all professions. My plan in this column is to sample some of the more elementary current surveying procedures from a mathematical point of view, using The Surveying Handbook edited by Russel Brinker and Roy Minnick, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, as my source.

    It must be noted that at least one mathematician was a world-class surveyor. But Gauss himself conducted a survey of the state of Hanover between andand continued to direct work on refinements of the grid.

    surveying formula sheet

    One of the nine volumes of his collected works is entirely devoted to geodesy. A detail of the triangulation of Hanover carried out under Gauss's supervision between and The pink lines are part of the Hauptsystem main system laid out by Gauss himself in Collected WorksVolume 9, p.

    One essential surveying task is "to prolong a straight line forward from an existing point. If all points are visible from the starting point, line of sight may be used. But suppose a line has been drawn from point A to point B in sightand must be extended beyond B to a point visible from B but out of sight of A. Here is the procedure: move the transit the surveyor's telescope to B, backsight on A, "plunge" the transit rotate it forwards in a vertical plane and sight a new point C.

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    This procedure requires two surveyors, one to look through the telescope and one to move a marker until it lines up with the telescope's axis; once executed it can be repeated to extend a line over hill and dale. When the line needs extending through an obstruction, some more geometry comes into play.

    D is established on the resulting prolongation of AB at the same distance as BC. A typical survey results in a map also called "a survey" : a 2-dimensional representation of part of the earth's surface. A map being flat shows all points on the same level; but the surface of the earth is rarely flat. I am not referring here to the curvature of the earth --which large-scale surveys must take into account-- but to the local ups and downs that every cyclist is aware of.

    One of the jobs of the surveyor is to convert measurements taken on the undulating actual surface of the planet into data that represent positions on the ideal, perfectly level plane of the survey. As the Handbook remarks, "Considerable practice is required for field personnel to do accurate taping in hilly or rolling terrain.

    This is the first place where trigonometry is mentioned in the Handbook. Trigonometry also enters into the measurement of distances when the operation is carried out optically, using stadia lines.In the United States, surveyors are licensed at the state level by professional licensing boards.

    Surveying boards confer the P. Before registering for an upcoming NCEES surveying exam, review your state's unique approval and registration process by selecting your state or territory from the map or drop-down list below. The FS and PS exams are administered via computer-based testing. Registration is open year-round. Contact your state licensing board directly for information about state-specific surveying exams.

    Many professional surveyors find that their careers require them to be licensed in more than one state. To do this, a P. You must also acknowledge the following statement:. I acknowledge and understand that passing this exam does not guarantee future licensure and that if I misrepresent my credentials in this acknowledgment, the Alabama Board may refuse to license me. There will be a link called Exam Verification.

    surveying formula sheet

    Review the Verified Exams section. Once you pass your exam, you will then apply directly to the Alabama board to continue the licensure process and will submit any required application and documentation as required by the board. The Alabama board does not require examinees to submit an application or an additional fee prior to registering with NCEES and scheduling an exam.

    Examinees will be provided one attempt per testing window and no more than three attempts in a month period. During the registration process, examinees select their exam location.

    surveying formula sheet

    Next, they are presented with a list of available exam dates. If examinees are not happy with the choices, they can browse through the available dates at other NCEES-approved test centers. Exam results are typically available within 7—10 business days. Results will include a link to your licensing board for additional state-specific information or instructions. All results are reported as pass or fail. If you fail the examination, you will receive a diagnostic report showing your performance for each of the major topics covered on the exam.

    Refer to the section on computer-based exams in the NCEES Examinee Guide for information about cancellations, refunds, rescheduling, and discipline changes.

    When results have been released to the board typically 8—10 weeks after the exam and validated, NCEES will send an email informing you that your exam result can be accessed through your MyNCEES account. You will not receive a diagnostic report if you pass the examination. Funds may not be transferred to a later exam administration date.

    After the NCEES registration deadline, registrations may not be canceled and fees will not be refunded. First-time examinees must first apply to the Alaska board for approval to sit for the exam.

    Examinees must first apply to the Alaska board for approval to sit for the exam in Alaska. EST on February 20, to reserve your seat for the exam. No notice to the Alaska board is necessary. Examinees should contact the board directly for details. The Arizona Board does not require examinees to submit an application or an additional fee prior to registering with NCEES and scheduling an exam. All other applicants must apply to the Arizona Board for authorization to take the examination.

    You can check to see if your FE exam has already been verified by looking at the right side of your dashboard when you log in and following the Exam Verification link. If your FE exam has not been verified, you will need to submit a verification request to the board where you passed the FE exam.This Land Surveying Video collection has been an ongoing collaborative effort by all members of the community since Our goal is to provide a place where you can learn something new about land surveying everyday!

    Add Surveying Video. Sharing your videos and those surveying videos you think will be helpful to other members of the community is incredibly simple. Upload your Video to the community and describe the video and why you think it is useful to the community. Use the Rich Text description area to link to more resources.

    Embed a video that you found elsewhere from Youtube, Vimeo, etc. Did you know that Hubs have videos too? If you would like a more targeted audience for your videos, you can share your videos inside hubs based on any surveying topictype of equipment or location. Sign Up Sign In. Like 0. Tags: formulaexcelhow-totutorial. This reply was deleted. E-mail me when people leave their comments — Follow. You're only seeing half of everything.

    Become a member and share your land surveying videos Sign Up. Already a member? Log in. You can also use these:. Please check your browser settings or contact your system administrator.It is designed for recent graduates and students who are close to finishing an undergraduate surveying degree from an ABET accredited program. The FS exam is a question test.

    The Mathematics of Surveying: Part I

    The exam appointment time is 6 hours long and includes the following:. Special accommodations are available for examinees who meet certain eligibility criteria and sufficiently document their request. FS specifications effective through June 30, FS specifications effective beginning July 1, AITs are questions other than traditional multiple-choice questions. Learn more about AITs.

    Some licensing boards may require you to file a separate application and pay an application fee as part of the approval process to qualify you for a seat for an NCEES exam.

    Your licensing board may have additional requirements. You will be provided with an electronic reference handbook during the exam. These practice exams contain questions that have been used on past exams and questions written just for study materials to give you extra practice. Online practice exams are no longer available.

    If you have already purchased an online practice exam, you will have access to the exam until the exam is completed or until your purchased time expires. FS exam results are generally available 7—10 days after you take the exam. Results include information specific to your licensing board regarding how you should proceed based on your performance. FS exam. The exam appointment time is 6 hours long and includes the following: Nondisclosure agreement 2 minutes Tutorial 8 minutes Exam 5 hours and 20 minutes Scheduled break 25 minutes Learn more at the NCEES YouTube channel.

    Be prepared for the FS exam by Reviewing the FS exam specifications, fees, and requirements Reading the reference materials Understanding scoring and reporting Viewing the most up-to-date FS exam pass rates.

    Scoring and reporting FS exam results are generally available 7—10 days after you take the exam. Learn more about the exam scoring process. Cookie policy This website places cookies on your device to ensure that you get the best user experience.

    By using this site, you agree to accept the placement of these cookies. Read our privacy policy to learn more.All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Units of measurement used in past and present surveys are. For construction work: feet, inches, fractions of inches m, mm For most surveys: feet, tenths, hundredths, thousandths m, mm For National Geodetic Survey NGS control surveys:.

    The most-used equivalents are. When a number of surveying measurements of the same quantity have been made, they must be analyzed on the basis of probability and the theory of errors. After all systematic cumulative errors and mistakes have been elimi- nated, random compensating errors are investigated to determine the most probable value mean and other critical values. Formulas determined from statistical theory and the normal, or Gaussian, bell-shaped probability distribu- tion curve, for the most common of these values follow.

    Standard deviation of a series of observations is. The probable error of a single observation is. The probability that an error within this range will occur is. The probability that an error will lie between two values is given by the ratio of the area of the probability curve included between the values to the total area. Inasmuch as the area under the entire probability curve is unity, there is a percent probability that all measurements will lie within the range of the curve.

    The area of the curve between s is 0.

    Surveying Videos

    This error range is also called the one-sigma or The area of the curve between 2 s is 0. Thus there is a Similarly, 3 s is referred to as the For practical purposes, a maximum tolerable level often is assumed to be the Table 7. The probable error of the combined effects of accidental errors from different causes is.

    TABLE 1. Probability of Error in a Single Measurement.

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    Probable 0. Error of the mean is. Probable error of the mean is. Reasonable precisions for different methods of measuring distances are. Pacing ordinary terrain : to.

    Taping ordinary steel tape : to Results can be. Baseline invar tape : to. Stadia: to with special procedures. The continued development, and the resulting drop in prices, are making their use widespread. A knowledge of steel-taping errors and corrections remains important, how- ever, because use of earlier survey data requires a knowl- edge of how the measurements were made, common sources for errors, and corrections that were typically required.Thank you for visiting the Land Surveyors Spreadsheets Website.

    The spreadsheets are free to download and will do the traverse adjusments for you. They provide you with the best, worst and all closures depending on which station you start from.

    You can choose between Compass and Transit Rule and do closed and open traverse adjusments. Once you've keyed in the data, you can also copy and paste the data in a. All the instruction are provided in the info page within the spreadsheets. In order to keep the users with updated versions, I've put expiry dates on the spreadsheets. I usually release new updated versions every 9 to 12 months. I've build two verions. One for Excel and one for Open Office. Please note that the Excel version includes the xyz spreadsheet which does the elevation adjustments.

    For that reason, I recommend you download the Excel version. To download the spreadsheets, just go to the download section. I hope you will enjoy using them. To download the LSS just click on the button below. Land Surveyors Spreadsheets will accept donnations through paypal.

    Click on the button below to be redirected to the paypal donnation page. The Spreadsheets Download Donnate. Welcome to Land Surveyors Spreadsheets. The Spreadsheets.

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