• Evaluation of the socioeconomic impacts of the drought events

    Evaluation of the socioeconomic impacts of the drought events

    Collins, K. Three stakeholder workshops convened in the U. The U. The Australian workshop brought together 30 mostly state-based participants from the water suppliers and water users sectors. Collective insights are reported. Climate projections suggest many regions will experience more intense droughts leading to increased impacts.

    evaluation of the socioeconomic impacts of the drought events

    But imprecise definitions, slow onset, and multiple socioecological interactions mean drought impacts are difficult to assess and quantify. Improving drought monitoring and early warning systems DEWS through linking indicators to impacts can lessen societal vulnerability Bachmair et al. Although there were some country-based differences, the main aims of the workshops were as follows:.

    Each workshop was designed as a coinquiry to develop collective insights, as opposed to knowledge gathering by researchers or knowledge transfer e. The first workshop was convened in North Carolina. The state, regional organizations, and community water suppliers are already heavily involved in drought monitoring and planning.

    The workshop therefore focused on learning about drought monitoring and management efforts at the state and community water system-level in the Neuse and Cape Fear basins, and identifying actions needed to enhance local and state-level DEWS and drought management.

    Stakeholders shared their experiences and developed a common understanding of their efforts and learning, while expert presentations considered needs for enhanced DEWS for large water systems across the state. Breakout discussions followed, based on stakeholder groups, to identify current needs for enhancing DEWS and drought management efforts.

    Table-based working sessions of mixed stakeholders were interspersed with presentations from DrIVER researchers and other expert invited speakers and plenaries. Expert presentations raised new ideas and insights as input to the conversations. The final plenary identified a series of actions to progress DEWS. Despite country differences, the workshops reveal distinct similarities.

    Although summarized under discrete headings, there are many interconnections.If you would like to be involved in its development let us know. We are developing approaches to the economic valuation of social science research as part of our impact assessment framework.

    This is a challenging task because of the absence in most cases of recognisable markets for social science outputs. But we are seeking to use economic evaluation techniques where they can be applied appropriately and robustly. Economic valuation captures one element of research impact and we recognise the importance of using such techniques within our framework for assessing the full range of research contributions to policy and practice.

    The pilot focused on known examples of impact where economic benefits had been identified and could be attributed to social science inputs. These reports are available to downloaded:. In we undertook a trial of economic impact valuation methods. The report from this study is available to download:. The main purpose of the study was to develop robust estimates of the economic benefits of such data infrastructure investments, and to present the results of this economic assessment within the context of a broader qualitative analysis of the benefits of ESDS.

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    evaluation of the socioeconomic impacts of the drought events

    Home Research Research and impact evaluation Economic impact evaluation. Research Toggle navigation. Our research Future of social science Impact toolkit International research Celebrating Impact Prize Research and impact evaluation Evaluation of large initiatives Evaluations of ESRC funding schemes International benchmarking reviews Analysis and scoping Policy, practice and business impacts: evaluation studies Developing impact evaluation Economic impact evaluation.The paper focuses on the socioeconomic impacts of drought events.

    Its objective is in particular to explore and study the distributive effects of drought events in the agricultural sector, taking the Po river basin, the most important agricultural area in Italy, as case study area. Its theoretical and methodological approach makes basis on the consumer surplus theory.

    One of the most remarkable outcomes of this analysis is that the effects of the drought events change considerably according to the social group. As far as agriculture is concerned, it shows that farmers and consumers are affected differently.

    Very different impacts, in terms of sign and magnitude, were also observed among the farmers themselves, in particular when they are distinguished by crop category, and by geographical area. Il territorio del fiume Po. Tre Italie. La problematica territoriale dello sviluppo italiano. Bologna: Il Mulino. Assessment of the impact of the heat wave and drought of the summer on agriculture and forestry. Papers in Natural Resources Lincoln: University of Nebrasca.

    Mapping the impacts of recent natural disasters and technological accidents in Europe. The impact of disasters on agriculture and food security. Rome: FAO. Retrieved form www. Applied Economics, 38 8 DOI: Modelli locali di sviluppo. Milano: Franco Angeli. Economic Analysis of the Drought for California Agriculture.

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    Il consumo di suolo in Italia. Edizione The impracticality of a universal drought definition. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. European Climate Adaptation Platform.

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    Bilbao: Basque Centre for Climate Change. Economia delle fonti di energia e dell'ambiente 2. Drought management in the Po river basin, Italy in Assimacopoulos, D. Part III: Drought management experiences and the role of stakeholders.

    Economic Impacts of Drought

    Aid for Trade and Value Chains in Agrifood. Impacts of European drought events: insights from an international database of text-based reports Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16 3 Hydrological drought: processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater.

    Developments in Water Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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    Department of Agriculture Intermediate Microeconomics. A Modern Approach.Droughts account for With the anticipated pressures on water resources and with more intense and severe droughts predicted, a paradigm shift is needed. A well-planned approach that focuses on reducing the impacts of drought is needed now. The adoption of national drought policies that are focused on risk reduction and which are complemented by drought mitigation plans at various levels of government will have significant ripple effects across key sectors.

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    The vulnerability to future drought episodes can be significantly reduced and the coping capacity of communities, even entire nations, can be improved. A drought can be defined in several ways.

    A meteorological droughtfor example, occurs when rains do not transpire, whereas a hydrological drought occurs when a lack of rainfall continues long enough to empty rivers and lower water tables. The timing of declaring a drought can often be very subjective and highly political.

    Forecast mechanisms require quality data and local knowledge to understand how dry conditions will impact water and food supplies.

    Unfortunately, these predictions are often unreliable and action is not taken until it is too late. With more research and collaboration, early warning systems could reduce hunger and distressed migration as a result of drought.

    An Early Warning System EWS provides timely and effective information to facilitate action to avoid or reduce the risk of droughts and prepare for effective response. Numerous natural drought indicators must be monitored routinely to determine the onset and end of drought and its spatial characteristics. Although all types of droughts originate from a precipitation deficiency, it is insufficient to rely solely on this climate element to assess severity of drought.

    Effective drought early warning systems integrate precipitation and other climatic parameters with water information, such as stream flow, snow pack, groundwater levels, reservoir and lake levels, and soil moisture, as well as a comprehensive assessment of current and future drought and water supply conditions.

    Local knowledge systems, including traditional knowledge of farmers and pastoralists should also be incorporated into the information system Handbook of Drought Indicators and Indices Occasionally, depending on the location, less rain can be compensated for by access to underground water, manmade reservoirs or moisture stored in soils across forested watersheds. Elsewhere, without these buffers in place, drought rapidly escalates into shriveled crops, dead livestock and, in some cases, hunger and death.

    No amount of early warning will work without action to protect the most vulnerable; therefore, the second aspect of drought management deals with risk assessment of vulnerable sectors, population groups and regions.

    Vulnerability is a condition resulting from social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increases the susceptibility of a system to the impacts of drought hazard. To reduce vulnerability to drought, it is essential to identify the relevant impacts and assess their underlying causes.

    Information on drought impacts and their causes is crucial for reducing risk before drought occurs and for appropriate response during and after drought. It is important to combine forecasts with detailed knowledge on how landscapes and societies respond to a lack of rain and to turn that knowledge into prompt action within weeks or even days. There are practical measures that can be taken starting immediately. Both measures and actions — also called drought risk management options — that either build greater resilience to drought or reduce the impacts of drought when it occurs can be deployed.

    These measures concern all sectors affected by drought, based on their vulnerabilities. However, working with nature and understanding the necessary combination of measures is particularly important for agriculture and for sectors reliant on the availability of water and ecosystems services. These measures and actions involve approaches promoted by the UNCCD as they involve strengthening natural infrastructure and the integrated management of land and water resources.

    The time is ripe for countries to develop and implement effective national drought policies that include all three pillars of drought action. Countries need to recognize that the traditional approach of responding to drought is not viable any more; it has proved to be ineffective far too often.

    In many countries, drought awareness is limited and institutional capacities need to be strengthened by promoting public awareness and strengthening capacities of both the citizens and institutions especially at the local level: farmers, pastoralists and all those actors and stakeholders involved in decision making.

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    Local citizens and institutions, in particular, need help to identify and disseminate good practices that work in local conditions. By being proactive, investing in early warning systems and assessing their vulnerability, countries can emphasize protection rather than recovery.Drought and drought impacts are really two sides of the same coin.

    We cannot fully understand drought without also understanding its impacts, which can affect all parts of our environment and our communities. Understanding drought conditions, societal vulnerability, and their related effects on one another provide us with historical lessons that can aid in dealing with future drought conditions.

    Drought does not always offer the same immediate and dramatic visuals associated with events such as hurricanes and tornadoes, but it still has a huge price tag. In fact, droughts rank second in types of phenomena associated with billion-dollar weather disasters during the past three decades. These costly drought impacts come in a variety of forms.

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    Examples of economic impacts include farmers who lose money because drought destroyed their crops or ranchers who may have to spend more money to feed and water their animals. Economic impacts can be both direct, such as decreases in dairy production, and indirect, as seen by increases in the price of cheese. In addition to the economy, drought also affects the environment and society.

    Plants and animals depend on water, just as people do. Drought can shrink their food supplies and damage their habitats. Sometimes this damage is only temporary, and other times it is irreversible. Drought conditions can also provide a substantial increase in wildfire risk. As plants and trees wither and die from a lack of precipitation, increased insect infestations, and diseases—all of which are associated with drought—they become fuel for wildfires.

    Long periods of drought can equate to more wildfires and more intense wildfires, which affect the economy, the environment, and society in many ways such as by destroying neighborhoods, crops, and habitats.

    To help decision makers and the public address these issues, the National Integrated Drought Information System provides assessments of drought conditions through systematic categorization and reporting of impacts.

    By considering the economic, environmental, and social impacts of drought, scientists can study specific events and their underlying meteorological contributors to improve future societal preparedness. Additionally, the National Weather Forecast Offices produce Drought Information Statements for affected areas, which include information about impacts.

    And, on the international scale, the U. This is part of a series of articles about monitoring and assessing drought conditions across the United States.

    Check back next week to learn more about the products used for drought monitoring or check out the how degrees of drought reveal the true picture. Latest News. National Climatic Data Center. Skip to main content. Search Field:. In August this drought stircken family farm in Missouri Valley, Iowa, was just one example of the drought impacts in the area that caused rising grain prices throughout the year. Credit: The U. Department of Agriculture. About Contact Employment Site Map.Drought situations can have significant impacts, affecting large areas and imposing relevant restrictions on multiple economic activities.

    However, those assessments usually do not represent the socioeconomic importance of the impacts and the results are not comparable for different types of impacts or distinct regions.

    In this context, the present work enunciates the main principles to be considered and a methodological approach for socioeconomic evaluation of drought effects, regarding the main supply and demand characteristics of a region water sources and associated usesand the hydrological interlinked effects of drought situations.

    Regarding the main specificities of the referred case studies, the economic activities and water dependent sectors considered for this methodology were the agricultural and the urban water supply sectors. For each of those sectors, specific assessment procedures where developed in order to estimate the respective economic impacts caused by the drought situation in the area of analysis.

    The methodology may be applicable to any region with common hydrological and water use data and was developed to be of support for drought management and application on a drought early warning system. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Agnew Using the SPI to identify drought. Drought Network news, Vol. Alley W The palmer drought severity index: limitations and assumptions.

    Geological Survey, Reston. Google Scholar. Alston M, Kent J Social impacts of drought. Birol E, Karousakis K, Koundouri P Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

    Sci Total Environ 1—3 — Colby B Estimating the value of water in alternative uses. Nat Res J 29 2 — Disaster Prev Manag 20 4 — Doorenbos J, Kassam A Yield response to water. Gibbons DC The economic value of water. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.

    Green C Handbook of water economics —principles and practices. ISBN Drought can cost people, businesses and governments money. These impacts may be local, and only affect those in the drought-stricken area, or they may be widespread and impact people living outside the drought affected area. Drought also has an adverse impact on different sectors, such as agriculture, energy production, tourism, and recreation.

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    Crop loss also impacts consumers through increased food prices and the economic impacts of drought can be felt in other provinces and even countries. For example, the drought in California that began in has impacted vegetable, fruit, and nut prices in Canada. Livestock producers are impacted by drought because of a lack of drinking water and poor pasture conditions as well as increased prices of feed for livestock. A lack of food and water, or increase in the price of food and water, can lead to ranchers selling or slaughtering more animals from their herd.

    An increase in animals slaughtered early in a drought year may cause an initial decrease in meat prices due to overabundance of meat. However, this is often followed by an increase in meat prices as a drought persists, as there are less animals and the price to feed and water the animals has increased.

    The drought in Alberta and Saskatchewan in has been cited as the cause of increased beef prices in Canada. During the first half of parts of western Saskatchewan and eastern Alberta received less than 40 per cent of their normal rainfall.

    evaluation of the socioeconomic impacts of the drought events

    The drought resulted in a lack of suitable pastureland, causing increases in the price of feed for cattle. As a result many farmers sold large portions of their cattle.

    The necessity to sell cattle or pay increased prices to feed cattle was felt by both farmers and by consumers. The price of beef increased to the highest sincethe price of ground beef increased by 33 percent from to and the price of sirloin steak increased by 44 percent 1.

    Drought impacts both thermal energy production, where there may not be enough water to cool the process, and hydropower production where there may not be sufficient water to produce power.

    evaluation of the socioeconomic impacts of the drought events

    The winter of received the lowest amount of snowfall on record, this was followed by the driest summer in forty years in 5,7 leading to less power generation at one of three major hydropower sites. Due to the decreased energy production there was a shortfall in power across the Territories that needed to be supplemented with diesel power generation.

    Diesel power generation is more expensive than hydropower generation and increases greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. The need to supplement power and cover the cost of diesel energy production the Northwest Territories Power Corporation applied to the public utilities board for an emergency rate increase of 3.

    Another example of drought having a negative financial impact on the energy industry is inwhen severe droughts in California and the Pacific Northwest significantly reduced hydropower generation. This resulted in tight electricity supplies and high prices.


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